EFFECT OF MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF CIDER
by KRISTIN VÕSUJALG
The objective of this study was to analyse the necessity of malolactic fermentation in ciders produced in Estonia and to find out how does the malolactic fermentation effect chemical characteristiks and sensory properties of cider. Under the analysis were ripe apples from „Melba“ cultivar. Chemical characteristcs under evaluation were pH and the content of ethanol, malic- and lactic acid. For sensory properties, simple descriptional evaluation was carried through. Measured pH and the amount of malic acid in cider made out of apple cultivar ’Melba’, showed that the cider is rather sour. With all the yeast strains the final malic content after alcoholic fermentation was 0,7%. The use of malolactic fermentation was chosen beacause of the high content of malic acid. The amount of lactic acid after malolactic fermentation was 0,6%. Before malolactic fermentation it was 0%. The amount of malic acid after malolactic fermentation was 0%. Deriving from the fact that lactic acid concentration increased by 0,6% and malic acid content decreased by 0,7%, one may assume that the malolactic fermentation had taken place. After alcoholic fermentation the ethanol content in cider was 5,2%-5,3%. After malolactic fermentation it was 4,9-5,3%. Comparing these results, one may say that the ethanolic content did not change signifcally and malolactic fermentation does not have a big effect on ethanol content of cider. Sensory evaluation described the full properties of cider. Sensory analysis with Esensorics allowed to evaluate the aroma and taste before and after malolactic fermentation in a way it is impossible to do with chemical analysis. It was discovered that malolactic fermentation had no remarkable effect on aroma of the cider, although it had a signifact effect on the taste. After malolactic fermentation, the perceptible sourness was decreased signiffically, also the amount of tannins and bitterness. With the decrease of sourness, some sweet notes emerged. This thesis will help manufacturers of cider who are interested in using Estonian apples for natural cider with high quality.
Esensorics is sensory survey software developed by Proflsoft OÜ, to help the food & beverage industry develop new products and maintain quality control over existing products.